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  • agoodweather shared from a Personal Document
    But when we remember or imagine a temporally distant event, our brains seem to overlook the fact that details vanish with temporal distance, and they conclude instead that the distant events actually are as smooth and vague as we are imagining and remembering them.
    Note: m
  • agoodweather shared from a Personal Document
    house.”19 When we think of events in the distant past or distant future we tend to think abstractly about why they happened or will happen, but when we think of events in the near past or near future we tend to think concretely about how they happened or will happen.20
    Note: m
  • agoodweather shared from a Personal Document
    相对于这些伟大人物,萨缪尔森们要逊色一点。他们承认各人有各自的终点,经济不是一艘整体的大船,而是许多相互独立的车子。他们尊重每个驾车者对各自目标的选择,并不予以干涉。但经济学家的智慧绝对不容低估,用韦伯式的黑话来说,经济学家在价值理性上虽然并不高于他人,但在工具理性上仍然是导师级的人物。在微观的层面上,他们能教给每个驾车人关于驾驶的原理;在宏观层面上,他们能绘制道路规划的蓝图,设定最合理的驾驶规则,以避免翻车、撞车、堵车,保证每个人都能更快、更安全地抵达各自的终点。
    Note: m
  • agoodweather shared from a Personal Document
    这两种错误,前者通常对应于单个经验事件或比较直接的因果关联,后者通常对应于大量经验事件或比较复杂的因果关联。要避免犯这两种错误,我们就有必要了解因果关系的两种定义:INUS定义和SUPPES定义。 下面我们通过两个例子来分别说明。 第一个例子是,某甲将某乙从五楼上推下来,某乙落地后死掉了。通常情况下,某甲应该为此负责,因为我们认为某甲推某乙下楼是某乙死亡的原因。但如果用充分/必要条件关系来检验,这个因果关系就不成立。因为即使某乙不被推下去,他也未必不死,所以某甲推某乙下楼不是必要条件。另一方面,如果某乙落地的地方刚好是一个充气垫子,或者某乙身负绝世轻功,那么他即使被推下去也未必死,所以这里也不存在充分条件。...
    Note: m
  • agoodweather shared from a Personal Document
    As our man-made world grows increasingly too much with us, what a relief to visit with Thoreau the woods and ponds and streams he loves to explore.
    Note: m
  • agoodweather shared from a Personal Document
    and other findings have led some researchers to conclude that the feeling of control—whether real or illusory—is one of the wellsprings of mental health.
    Note: a
  • agoodweather shared from a Personal Document
    Seeing the Great Pyramid or remembering the Golden Gate or imagining the Space Station are far more remarkable acts than is building any one of them.
    Note: a
  • agoodweather shared from a Personal Document
    一切理论都有其假设前提,这不是理论本身的局限,而是语言的局限。理论必然存在于某种语言之中,但离开假设,语言本身将变为不可能。科学是谈论事实的,但如果我们抛开一切假设,则事实本身就将无法加以任何谈论。
    Note: important