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  • Harold shared from The Eye: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions) by Michael F. Land
    Note: A short introduction to the eye.
  • Harold shared from 1493: Uncovering the New World Columbus Created by Charles C. Mann
    African slaves—the first big contract for Africans on the mainland, and one of the biggest to date. Two years later the initial shipment of a hundred captives arrived at Veracruz, on the Gulf of Mexico. It marked the arrival of the Atlantic slave trade.
  • Harold shared from 1493: Uncovering the New World Columbus Created by Charles C. Mann
    Under the law, Indian Christians were entitled after baptism to be treated exactly like Spanish Christians, who could not be enslaved. But colonists argued the contrary; Indians were, in effect, less human than Europeans, and thus could be forced to work even after they converted.
  • Harold shared from 1493: Uncovering the New World Columbus Created by Charles C. Mann
    Archaeologists have turned up evidence of people eating potatoes thirteen thousand years ago in southern Chile—not the modern Solanum tuberosum, but a wild species, S. maglia, which still grows on the coast.
    Note: 13000 years ago. What say you Richard? Is dating science off the mark here ?
  • Harold shared from 1493: Uncovering the New World Columbus Created by Charles C. Mann
    Panicked farmers turned to the first inorganic pesticide: a widely available form of arsenic, sprayed with enthusiasm over the field. Competition to produce ever-more-effective arsenic compounds launched the modern pesticide industry—the third component of modern agribusiness.
    Note: Monsanto. 1630