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  • Sherman shared from Testing Wars in the Public Schools by William J. Reese
    As the months rolled by, everyone was prepared to mind everyone else’s business.
    Note: I think Reese had fun w/Boston school politics:
  • Sherman shared from Testing Wars in the Public Schools by William J. Reese
    “Mr. Mann knows nothing of the philosophy of education, for he knows nothing of the philosophy of human nature, and nothing of Christian morals and theology. His theory is derived from German quacks, and can only rear up a generation of infidels.”
    Note: Orestes Brownson's scathing attack on Horace Mann:
  • Sherman shared from Testing Wars in the Public Schools by William J. Reese
        Rero, rero, riddlety rad     This morning my baby caught sight of her Dad,     Quote she, “Oh, Daddy, where have you been?”     “With Mann and [Charles] Sumner a-putting down sin.”37
    Note: Julia Ward Howe's doggerel when upset with her husband's reform activities:
  • Sherman shared from Testing Wars in the Public Schools by William J. Reese
    The majority of people who wrote about schools in the first half of the nineteenth century often treated the words “exhibition” and “examination” as synonyms and frequently used them interchangeably. Reformers seeking to elevate the importance of written, competitive examinations wanted to distinguish one from the other, which was easier said than done. After all, examinations (which were mostly oral) and exhibitions often happened at the same time. While students regularly recited to teachers and the school committee might question them prior to an evening show, some pupils were usually...
    Note: Reese on why 19th c advocates of written tests faced uphill battle:
  • Sherman shared from Testing Wars in the Public Schools by William J. Reese
    Lacking the rituals of an established national church or powerful centralized government, Americans funded a diverse range of schools that drew upon European traditions but affirmed what were presumably widely shared, homegrown values.
    Note: Hidden, interesting Reese argument about school rituals as substitute for official church.