Public Notes

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  • jukka shared from The Happiness Hypothesis: Putting Ancient Wisdom to the Test of Modern Science by Jonathan Haidt
    Singer’s clear and compelling arguments convinced me on the spot, and since that day I have been morally opposed to all forms of factory farming. Morally opposed, but not behaviorally opposed. I love the taste of meat, and the only thing that changed in the first six months after reading Singer is that I thought about my hypocrisy each time I ordered a hamburger.
    Note: Esimerkki Haidtin ihanan rehellisesta tyylista. Miten miraalifilosofian lukemien muuttaa ihmista.
  • jukka shared from The Happiness Hypothesis: Putting Ancient Wisdom to the Test of Modern Science by Jonathan Haidt
    Twin studies generally show that from 50 percent to 80 percent of all the variance among people in their average levels of happiness can be explained by differences in their genes rather than in their life experiences.28 (Particular episodes of joy or depression, however, must usually be understood by looking at how life events interact with a person’s emotional predisposition.) A person’s average or typical level of happiness is that person’s “affective style.” (“Affect” refers to the felt or experienced part of emotion.) Your affective style reflects the everyday balance of power...
    Note: onnellisuuden periytyvyys (geneettinen) 50-80.
  • jukka shared from Ultrasociety: How 10,000 Years of War Made Humans the Greatest Cooperators on Earth by Peter Turchin
    A different perspective, one rooted in the new discipline of Cultural Evolution, disagrees. Yes, agriculture is a necessary condition for the evolution of complex societies. But it is not enough. The problem is that vital institutions, such as bureaucracies and organized religion, and constraints that compel a ruling elite to promote the common good, are all costly. How could these institutions come about in spite of such costs? The theory of cultural multilevel selection says that this evolution is only possible when societies compete against each other, so that those lacking the right institutions...
    Note: simple as that. how cultural evolution happens
  • jukka shared from The Secret of Our Success: How Culture Is Driving Human Evolution, Domesticating Our Species, and Making Us Smarter by Joseph Henrich
    Because most Neanderthal groups possess a toolkit substantially less complex than the more modern-looking African intruders (our ancestors), the assumption has often been that Neanderthals suffered some innate cognitive deficits relative to the African immigrants. This has been argued consistently, despite the fact that Neanderthal brains were as big, or bigger, than our brains.17 In primates, the strongest predictor of cognitive abilities across species is overall brain size.18 Consequently, it’s not implausible that we were dumber than the bigger-brained Neanderthals. Researchers, however,...
    Note: Neandertals has bigger brains but were less socially interconnected. Had smaller collective brains
  • jukka shared from The Secret of Our Success: How Culture Is Driving Human Evolution, Domesticating Our Species, and Making Us Smarter by Joseph Henrich
    The impact of this culturally transmitted know-how about fire and cooking has had such an impact on our species’ genetic evolution that we are now, essentially, addicted to cooked food. Wrangham reviewed the literature on the ability of humans to survive by eating only raw foods. His review includes historical cases in which people had to survive without cooking, as well as studies of modern fads, such as the raw foods movement, The long and short of all this is that it’s very difficult to survive for months without cooking. Raw-foodists are thin and often feel hungry. Their body fat drops...
    Note: We are dependent on cooking? It is part of our Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness.
  • jukka shared from The Secret of Our Success: How Culture Is Driving Human Evolution, Domesticating Our Species, and Making Us Smarter by Joseph Henrich
    By exploiting large data sets of students, courses, and instructors, my UBC colleague Florian Hoffman and his collaborators unearthed real-world evidence consistent with the experimental findings discussed above: being taught by instructors whom you match on ethnicity/race reduces your dropout rate and raises your grades. In fact, for African-American students at a community college, being taught by an African-American instructor reduced class dropout rates by 6 percentage points and increased the fraction attaining a B or better by 13 percentage points. Similarly, using data from freshman (first-years)...
    Note: esim. pojat oppivat helpommin miesopettajilta. Ihmisella taipumus ottaa mallia samanlaisilta.
  • jukka shared from Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History by Douglass C. North, John Joseph Wallis, Barry R. Weingast
    A final aspect of all open access orders is Schumpeter's notion of creative destruction, one of the most powerful descriptions of a competitive, open access economy. When Schumpeter wrote Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy in the early 1940s, the economic theory of perfect competition among atomistic firms (i.e., firms too small to have market power) had come under sustained attack as unrealistic. Large and powerful economic organizations dominated the new economy, and their behavior did not match the textbooks. Despite this dominance, the economy produced historically unprecedented, sustained...
    Note: Schumpeter realistically describes capitalism of year 1940 as of year 2015
  • jukka shared from Big Gods: How Religion Transformed Cooperation and Conflict by Ara Norenzayan
    We found that rule of law specifically reduced atheist distrust, above and beyond contributing to general levels of trust. Second, rule of law reduced atheist distrust even after controlling for individuals’ demographic characteristics, such as age, sex, education, and income. More importantly, we found that rule of law remained a significant source of reduced atheist distrust even after we removed the contributions of two known country-level factors that are associated with diminished atheist distrust: human development as measured by the United Nations (combined measure of economic wealth,...
    Note: suhtautuminen ateismiin...
  • jukka shared from European Spring: Why Our Economies and Politics are in a Mess - and How to Put Them Right by Philippe Legrain
    Many others took a moralistic view that debt contracts were sacrosanct. But they aren’t. Money is lent in the expectation of it being returned with interest, but with the risk that it won’t. That is why lenders charge a risk premium. Sometimes people default on their mortgages. Sometimes companies go bankrupt. And sometimes governments don’t pay their debts in full. (In fact, governments do this all the time: they erode their debts through inflation and, in the case of foreign creditors, currency depreciation – as anyone who holds a US Treasury bond knows all too well.) It is perfectly...
    Note: pointti Kreikasta ja sille rahaa lainanneista pankeista jotka ovat halunneet riskien sosialisointia
  • jukka shared from War: What is it good for?: The role of conflict in civilisation, from primates to robots by Ian Morris
    “It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer or the baker that we expect our dinner,” Smith observed, “but from their regard to their own interest.” “By directing [his] industry in such a manner as its produce may be of the greatest value,” Smith explained, a man “intends only his own gain; [but] he is in this, as in many other cases, led by an invisible hand to promote an end which was no part of his intention … By pursuing his own interest, he frequently promotes that of the society more effectually than when he really intends to promote it.” The implication was...
    Note: kiitos hallitukselle etta saamme tod.nak. enemman mrkkinataloutta. Turvatakuut kun viela saisi.
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