in any elite group of hockey players—the very best of the best—40 percent of the players will have been born between January and March, 30 percent between April and June, 20 percent between July and September, and 10 percent between October and December.
Note: 40:30:20:10 distribution
he didn’t start out an outlier. He started out just a little bit better.
Note: When defining "accumulative advantage", this is a good example to cite.
Exhibit A in the talent argument is a study done in the early 1990s by the psychologist K. Anders Ericsson and two colleagues at Berlin’s elite Academy of Music. With the help of the Academy’s professors, they divided the school’s violinists into three groups. In the first group were the stars, the students with the potential to become world-class soloists. In the second were those judged to be merely “good.” In the third were students who were unlikely to ever play professionally and who intended to be music teachers in the public school system. All of the violinists were then asked...
Note: Gladwell could have done more to acknowledge Ericsson's ground-breaking work on Expertise and on "Deliberate Practice", and also on the benefits of a coach who pushes you to work on your weak areas and in your "Zone of Proximal Development". For further reading: The cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance - K. Anders Ericsson Superior Memory of Experts and Long-Term Working Memory (LTWM) - K. Anders Ericsson
The relationship between success and IQ works only up to a point. Once someone has reached an IQ of somewhere around 120, having additional IQ points doesn’t seem to translate into any measurable real-world advantage.
Note: This doesn't address the issue that, to begin with, IQ is a deficient measure of intelligence/potential.