that at the exact moment any decision seems to be being made, it’s usually long after the real decision was actually made—like light we see emitted from stars. Which means we usually make up our minds about important things far too soon and usually with poor information. But we then convince ourselves we haven’t done that
The price we pay for this rapid-fire analysis is that we miss a lot of details. Where the problem comes in is that we don’t think we’ve missed anything: we think we’ve seen it all. But we haven’t.
The misattribution of blame is one reason we make the same mistakes over and over again. We learn so little from experience because we often blame the wrong cause.
sleep-deprived people show a propensity to make reckless gambles (which helps explain why many casinos are open twenty-four hours a day). It also helps to be happy. Happiness fosters well-organized thinking and flexible problem solving, not only in touchy-feely fields like marketing and advertising, but in cerebral ones as well, like medicine. It even helps, believe it or not, to be less optimistic, especially when making decisions. That’s because most of us tend to be overconfident, and overconfidence is a leading cause of human error.