energy-efficient. It used fewer calories than walking on four legs. Our ancestral bodies used the energy surplus not to pump up our muscles but to pump up our minds-to the point that our modern-day brain, 2 percent of our body weight, sucks up 20 percent of the energy we consume. These changes in the structure of the brain led to the masterpiece of evolution, the region that distinguishes humans from all other creatures. It is a specialized area of the frontal lobe, just behind the forehead, called the prefrontal cortex.
Note: Phineas Gage prefrontal cortex accident
Eric Kandel is the scientist mostly responsible for figuring out the cellular basis of this process. For it, he shared the Nobel Prize in aooo, and his most important discoveries would have made inventor Alfred Nobel proud. Kandel showed that when people learn something, the wiring in their brains changes. He demonstrated that acquiring even simple pieces of information involves the physical alteration of the structure of the neurons participating in the process.
Note: author of "In Search of Memory", Kandel, on how memory changes the brain.
Meet Howard Gardner, psychologist, author, educator, and father of the so-called Multiple Intelligences movement. Gardner had the audacity to suggest that the competency of the human mind is too multifaceted to be boiled down to simplistic numerical measures.
Note: Gardner, author of "Multiple Intelligences". How are you intelligent?
i) Evaluate teachers and teachers-to-be for advanced Theory of Mind skills, using one of the four main tests that measure empathy.
Note: Theory of mind is the ability to attribute mental states—beliefs, intents, desires, pretending, knowledge, etc.—to oneself and others and to understand that others have beliefs, desires and intentions that are different from one's own.