This established the division between the mining and analysis of captured and carefully archived experimental data and the creation of theories. This division is one aspect of the Fourth Paradigm.
I believe that we will soon see a time when data will live forever as archival media—just like paper-based storage—and be publicly accessible in the “cloud” to humans and machines.
People now do not actually look through telescopes. Instead, they are “looking” through large-scale, complex instruments which relay data to datacenters, and only then do they look at the information on their computers.
The world of science has changed, and there is no question about this. The new model is for the data to be captured by instruments or generated by simulations before being processed by software and for the resulting information or knowledge to be stored in computers. Scientists only get to look at their data fairly late in this pipeline. The techniques and technologies for such data-intensive science are so different that it is worth distinguishing data-intensive science from computational science as a new, fourth paradigm for scientific exploration [1].