“The limits to innovation in large organizations have nothing to do with creativity and nothing to do with technology. They have everything to do with management capability.”1
Most companies have plenty of creativity and plenty of technology. What they lack are the managerial skills to convert ideas into impact.
The organization of the future—the near future—will be much more adept at simultaneously delivering efficiency and innovation.
By the 1980s, there had emerged a single, dominant strategic idea: to sustain success, identify an attractive industry, carve out a strong position in it, and defend it however possible—by creating entry barriers, for example. The notion of strategy as stability was powerful. At the same time, it is hard to imagine a doctrine more antagonistic to innovation. The mantra of the 1980s was one of